The peak-end rule

Experiences are mostly judged by their ends or peaks.

Favourable comparison

Comparing people to their friends is the most effective way to make them do something.

Cognitive misers

We’re intellectually lazy, avoiding hard questions where possible.

Hyperbolic discounting

We’ll accept smaller payoffs now over larger payoffs later on.


Where we do something—has a substantive effect on what we do.

Scream and shout

Clear and unambiguous danger is helped far more often than not.

When a victim is bloody, people help less often.

Halo effect

We have trouble seperating out traits in a person deferring to globally positive or negative reactions on a person


Expected rewards reduce motivation on a task. Surprise rewards increase motivation on the same task.

Fixed rewards are less powerful than performance-based rewards, even with creative tasks.

Round Pricing

We perceive round numbers as more trustworthy and representing higher quality.

Anchoring Bias

We tend to rely too heavily on the first piece of information seen


We act differently when reminded of who we are.